Әдебиеттен Нобель сыйлығы

Уикипедия — ашық энциклопедиясынан алынған мәлімет
Мұнда ауысу: шарлау, іздеу
Әдебиеттен Нобел жүлдесінің медалі. Түпнұсқа әрлемі ®© The Nobel Foundation.

Әдебиеттен Нобел жүлдесі – жыл сайын дүние жүзінің қандай да елінен болмасын шыққан авторға беріледі.

Бұл сыйлықты швед инженер-химигі, өнертапқыш және өнеркәсіп иесі Алфред Нобель ұйымдастырды. Оның есімімен аталған бұл сыйлық дүниежүзінде ең танымал, сонымен бірге ең қатты сыналады деп айтылады. Сыйлыққа А. Нобелдің кескіні бейнеленген алтын медаль, диплом және ақшалай сыйлық беріледі. Ақшалай сыйлық Нобель фондының кірісіне байланысты. Нобелдің 1895 ж. қарашаның 27 жазған өсиетхаты бойынша оның капиталы (алғашында 31 млн. швед кроны) акция, облигация, несиеге салынды. Осыдан түскен табыс бірдей бес бөлікке бөлінеді және физика, химия, физиология немесе медицина, әдебиет және бейбітшілікті нығайтуға бағытталған үздік жетістіктерге беріледі.

Сыйлықты жыл сайын желтоқсанның 10 Швеция патшасы Стокгольмда тапсырады. Нобел әдебиет сыйлығын алғаннан кейін лауреат жұмысының тақырыбы бойынша дәріс беруге міндетті. Негізінен әдебиет сыйлығы жазушыға жеке шығармасы үшін емес, әдебиеттің дамуына қосқан үлесі үшін беріледі.

1901 жылдан бері Әдебиеттен Нобел жүлдесі беріліп келеді. Содан бері 106 жазушы осы сыйлыққа ие болды.

Лауреаттар[өңдеу]

Жылы Есімі Азаматтығы Тіл(дер)і Дәйексөзі
1901 Прүдом, Сүлли (Sully Prudhomme)  Франция Французша «in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualities of both heart and intellect.»
1902 Моммзен, Теодор (Theodor Mommsen)  Алмания империясы Немісше «the greatest living master of the art of historical writing, with special reference to his monumental work, A History of Rome
1903 Бйорнсон, Бйорнстйерне (Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson)  Норвегия Норвегше «as a tribute to his noble, magnificent and versatile poetry, which has always been distinguished by both the freshness of its inspiration and the rare purity of its spirit.»
1904 Мистрал, Фредерик (Frédéric Mistral)  Франция Окситанша «in recognition of the fresh originality and true inspiration of his poetic production, which faithfully reflects the natural scenery and native spirit of his people, and, in addition, his significant work as a Provençal philologist.»
Ечегарай, Хосе (José Echegaray)  Испания Испанша «in recognition of the numerous and brilliant compositions which, in an individual and original manner, have revived the great traditions of the Spanish drama.»
1905 Сенкевич, Генрих (Henryk Sienkiewicz)  Польша Полякша «because of his outstanding merits as an epic writer.»
1906 Кардуччи, Джозе (Giosuè Carducci)  Италия Италианша «not only in consideration of his deep learning and critical research, but above all as a tribute to the creative energy, freshness of style, and lyrical force which characterize his poetic masterpieces.»
1907 Киплинг, Редйар (Rudyard Kipling)  Ұлыбритания Ағылшынша «in consideration of the power of observation, originality of imagination, virility of ideas and remarkable talent for narration which characterize the creations of this world-famous author.»
1908 Ойкен, Рудолф Кристоф (Rudolf Christoph Eucken)  Алмания империясы Немісше «in recognition of his earnest search for truth, his penetrating power of thought, his wide range of vision, and the warmth and strength in presentation with which in his numerous works he has vindicated and developed an idealistic philosophy of life.»
1909 Лагерлөф, Селма (Selma Lagerlöf)  Швеция Ісуішше «in appreciation of the lofty idealism, vivid imagination and spiritual perception that characterize her writings.»
1910 Хейзе, Паул (Paul Heyse)  Алмания империясы Немісше «as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories.»
1911 Метерлинк, Морис (Maurice Maeterlinck)  Бельгия Французша «in appreciation of his many-sided literary activities, and especially of his dramatic works, which are distinguished by a wealth of imagination and by a poetic fancy, which reveals, sometimes in the guise of a fairy tale, a deep inspiration, while in a mysterious way they appeal to the readers' own feelings and stimulate their imaginations.»
1912 Ғауптманн, Герхарт (Gerhart Hauptmann)  Алмания империясы Немісше «primarily in recognition of his fruitful, varied and outstanding production in the realm of dramatic art.»
1913 Тагор, Рабиндранат (Rabindranath Tagore)  India Баңлаша «because of his profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse, by which, with consummate skill, he has made his poetic thought, expressed in his own English words, a part of the literature of the West.»
1915 Роллан, Ромен (Romain Rolland)  Франция Французша «as a tribute to the lofty idealism of his literary production and to the sympathy and love of truth with which he has described different types of human beings.»
1916 Verner von Heidenstam  Швеция шведше «in recognition of his significance as the leading representative of a new era in our literature.»
1917 Karl Adolph Gjellerup  Дания Дат «for his varied and rich poetry, which is inspired by lofty ideals.»
Henrik Pontoppidan  Дания Дат «for his authentic descriptions of present-day life in Denmark.»
1919 Carl Spitteler  Швейцария немісше «in special appreciation of his epic, Olympian Spring
1920 Knut Hamsun  Норвегия Норвегше «for his monumental work, Growth of the Soil
1921 Anatole France  Франция Французша «in recognition of his brilliant literary achievements, characterized as they are by a nobility of style, a profound human sympathy, grace, and a true Gallic temperament.»
1922 Jacinto Benavente  Испания Испанша «for the happy manner in which he has continued the illustrious traditions of the Spanish drama.»
1923 William Butler Yeats  Ирландия Ағылшын тілі «for his always inspired poetry, which in a highly artistic form gives expression to the spirit of a whole nation.»
1924 Władysław Reymont  Польша Polish «for his great national epic, The Peasants
1925 George Bernard Shaw  Ирландия Ағылшын тілі «for his work which is marked by both idealism and humanity, its stimulating satire often being infused with a singular poetic beauty.»
1926 Grazia Deledda  Италия Италиян «for her idealistically inspired writings which with plastic clarity picture the life on her native island and with depth and sympathy deal with human problems in general.»
1927 Henri Bergson  Франция Французша «in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brilliant skill with which they have been presented.»
1928 Sigrid Undset  Норвегия Норвегше «principally for her powerful descriptions of Northern life during the Middle Ages.»
1929 Thomas Mann  Германия немісше «principally for his great novel, Buddenbrooks, which has won steadily increased recognition as one of the classic works of contemporary literature.»
1930 Sinclair Lewis  АҚШ Ағылшын тілі «for his vigorous and graphic art of description and his ability to create, with wit and humour, new types of characters.»
1931 Erik Axel Karlfeldt  Швеция шведше «The poetry of Erik Axel Karlfeldt»
1932 John Galsworthy  Ұлыбритания Ағылшын тілі «for his distinguished art of narration which takes its highest form in The Forsyte Saga
1933 Ivan Bunin  Кеңестік Социалистік Республикалар Одағы (in exile) Russian «for the strict artistry with which he has carried on the classical Russian traditions in prose writing.»
1934 Luigi Pirandello  Италия Италиян «for his bold and ingenious revival of dramatic and scenic art.»
1936 Eugene O'Neill  АҚШ Ағылшын тілі «for the power, honesty and deep-felt emotions of his dramatic works, which embody an original concept of tragedy.»
1937 Roger Martin du Gard  Франция Французша «for the artistic power and truth with which he has depicted human conflict as well as some fundamental aspects of contemporary life in his novel cycle Les Thibault
1938 Pearl S. Buck  АҚШ Ағылшын тілі «for her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces.»
1939 Frans Eemil Sillanpää  Финляндия Finnish «for his deep understanding of his country's peasantry and the exquisite art with which he has portrayed their way of life and their relationship with Nature.»
1944 Johannes Vilhelm Jensen  Дания Дат «for the rare strength and fertility of his poetic imagination with which is combined an intellectual curiosity of wide scope and a bold, freshly creative style.»
1945 Gabriela Mistral  Чили Испанша «for her lyric poetry which, inspired by powerful emotions, has made her name a symbol of the idealistic aspirations of the entire Latin American world.»
1946 Hermann Hesse  Германия,[1] 1923:  Швейцария[1] немісше «for his inspired writings which, while growing in boldness and penetration, exemplify the classical humanitarian ideals and high qualities of style.»
1947 André Gide  Франция Французша «for his comprehensive and artistically significant writings, in which human problems and conditions have been presented with a fearless love of truth and keen psychological insight.»
1948 T. S. Eliot  АҚШ,[2] 1927:  Ұлыбритания[2] Ағылшын тілі «for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry.»
1949 William Faulkner  АҚШ Ағылшын тілі «for his powerful and artistically unique contribution to the modern American novel.»
1950 Bertrand Russell  Ұлыбритания Ағылшын тілі «in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought.»
1951 Pär Lagerkvist  Швеция шведше «for the artistic vigour and true independence of mind with which he endeavours in his poetry to find answers to the eternal questions confronting mankind.»
1952 François Mauriac  Франция Французша «for the deep spiritual insight and the artistic intensity with which he has in his novels penetrated the drama of human life.»
1953 Winston Churchill  Ұлыбритания Ағылшын тілі «for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values.»
1954 Ernest Hemingway  АҚШ Ағылшын тілі «for his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated in The Old Man and the Sea, and for the influence that he has exerted on contemporary style.»
1955 Halldór Laxness  Исландия Icelandic «for his vivid epic power which has renewed the great narrative art of Iceland.»
1956 Juan Ramón Jiménez  Испания Испанша «for his lyrical poetry, which in Spanish language constitutes an example of high spirit and artistical purity.»
1957 Albert Camus  Франция Французша «for his important literary production, which with clear-sighted earnestness illuminates the problems of the human conscience in our times.»
1958 Boris Pasternak (declined the prize)[1]  Кеңестік Социалистік Республикалар Одағы Russian «for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition.»
1959 Salvatore Quasimodo  Италия Италиян «for his lyrical poetry, which with classical fire expresses the tragic experience of life in our own times.»
1960 Saint-John Perse  Франция Французша «for the soaring flight and the evocative imagery of his poetry which in a visionary fashion reflects the conditions of our time.»
1961 Ivo Andrić  Югославия Serbo-Croat «for the epic force with which he has traced themes and depicted human destinies drawn from the history of his country.»
1962 John Steinbeck  АҚШ Ағылшын тілі «for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception.»
1963 Giorgos Seferis  Грекия Грек «for his eminent lyrical writing, inspired by a deep feeling for the Hellenic world of culture.»
1964 Jean-Paul Sartre (declined the prize)[2]  Франция Французша «for his work which, rich in ideas and filled with the spirit of freedom and the quest for truth, has exerted a farreaching influence on our age.»
1965 Mikhail Sholokhov  Кеңестік Социалистік Республикалар Одағы Russian «for the artistic power and integrity with which, in his epic of the Don, he has given expression to a historic phase in the life of the Russian people.»
1966 Shmuel Yosef Agnon  Израиль Hebrew «for his profoundly characteristic narrative art with motifs from the life of the Jewish people.»
Nelly Sachs  Германия,[3] 1952:  Швеция[3] немісше «for her outstanding lyrical and dramatic writing, which interprets Israel's destiny with touching strength.»
1967 Miguel Ángel Asturias  Гватемала Испанша «for his vivid literary achievement, deep-rooted in the national traits and traditions of Indian peoples of Latin America.»
1968 Yasunari Kawabata  Жапония Жапон «for his narrative mastery, which with great sensibility expresses the essence of the Japanese mind.»
1969 Samuel Beckett  Ирландия Ағылшын тілі/Французша «for his writing, which — in new forms for the novel and drama — in the destitution of modern man acquires its elevation.»
1970 Александыр Солженицин  Кеңестік Социалистік Республикалар Одағы Russian «for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature.»
1971 пабло Неруда  Чили Испанша «for a poetry that with the action of an elemental force brings alive a continent's destiny and dreams.»
1972 Heinrich Böll  Германия (West) немісше «for his writing which through its combination of a broad perspective on his time and a sensitive skill in characterization has contributed to a renewal of German literature.»
1973 Patrick White  Аустралия Ағылшын тілі «for an epic and psychological narrative art which has introduced a new continent into literature.»
1974 Eyvind Johnson  Швеция шведше «for a narrative art, farseeing in lands and ages, in the service of freedom.»
Harry Martinson  Швеция шведше «for writings that catch the dewdrop and reflect the cosmos.»
1975 Eugenio Montale  Италия Италиян «for his distinctive poetry which, with great artistic sensitivity, has interpreted human values under the sign of an outlook on life with no illusions.»
1976 Saul Bellow  Канада[4], 1941:  АҚШ.[5] Ағылшын тілі «for the human understanding and subtle analysis of contemporary culture that are combined in his work.»
1977 Vicente Aleixandre  Испания Испанша «for a creative poetic writing which illuminates man's condition in the cosmos and in present-day society, at the same time representing the great renewal of the traditions of Spanish poetry between the wars.»
1978 Isaac Bashevis Singer  Польша,[6] 1943:  АҚШ[6] Yiddish «for his impassioned narrative art which, with roots in a Polish-Jewish cultural tradition, brings universal human conditions to life.»
1979 Odysseas Elytis  Грекия Грек «for his poetry, which, against the background of Greek tradition, depicts with sensuous strength and intellectual clear-sightedness modern man's struggle for freedom and creativeness.»
1980 Czesław Miłosz  Польша, 1970:  АҚШ,[7] 1992:  Литва (honorary)[8] польяк «who with uncompromising clear-sightedness voices man's exposed condition in a world of severe conflicts.»
1981 Elias Canetti  Болгария,[9] 1952:  Ұлыбритания[9] немісше «for writings marked by a broad outlook, a wealth of ideas and artistic power.»
1982 Gabriel García Márquez  Колумбия Испанша «for his novels and short stories, in which the fantastic and the realistic are combined in a richly composed world of imagination, reflecting a continent's life and conflicts.»
1983 William Golding  Ұлыбритания Ағылшын тілі «for his novels which, with the perspicuity of realistic narrative art and the diversity and universality of myth, illuminate the human condition in the world of today.»
1984 Jaroslav Seifert  Чехия Чех «for his poetry which endowed with freshness, and rich inventiveness provides a liberating image of the indomitable spirit and versatility of man.»
1985 Claude Simon  Франция Французша «who in his novel combines the poet's and the painter's creativeness with a deepened awareness of time in the depiction of the human condition.»
1986 Wole Soyinka  Нигерия Ағылшын тілі «in a wide cultural perspective and with poetic overtones fashions the drama of existence.»
1987 Joseph Brodsky  Кеңестік Социалистік Республикалар Одағы,[10] 1977:  АҚШ[10] Russian/Ағылшын тілі «for an all-embracing authorship, imbued with clarity of thought and poetic intensity.»
1988 Naguib Mahfouz  Мысыр Arabic «who, through works rich in nuance — now clearsightedly realistic, now evocatively ambiguous — has formed an Arabian narrative art that applies to all mankind.»
1989 Camilo José Cela  Испания Испанша «for a rich and intensive prose, which with restrained compassion forms a challenging vision of man's vulnerability.»
1990 Octavio Paz  Мексика Испанша «for impassioned writing with wide horizons, characterized by sensuous intelligence and humanistic integrity.»
1991 Nadine Gordimer  Оңт. Африка Ағылшын тілі «who through her magnificent epic writing has — in the words of Alfred Nobel — been of very great benefit to humanity.»
1992 Derek Walcott Сент-Лусия Saint Lucia Ағылшын тілі «for a poetic oeuvre of great luminosity, sustained by a historical vision, the outcome of a multicultural commitment.»
1993 Тони Мориссон  АҚШ Ағылшын тілі «who in novels characterized by visionary force and poetic import, gives life to an essential aspect of American reality.»
1994 Kenzaburo Oe  Жапония Japanese «who with poetic force creates an imagined world, where life and myth condense to form a disconcerting picture of the human predicament today.»
1995 Seamus Heaney  Ирландия Ағылшын тілі/Irish «for works of lyrical beauty and ethical depth, which exalt everyday miracles and the living past.»
1996 Wisława Szymborska  Польша Польяк «for poetry that with ironic precision allows the historical and biological context to come to light in fragments of human reality.»
1997 Dario Fo  Италия Итальян «who emulates the jesters of the Middle Ages in scourging authority and upholding the dignity of the downtrodden.»
1998 José Saramago  Португалия португал «who with parables sustained by imagination, compassion and irony continually enables us once again to apprehend an elusory reality.»
1999 Günter Grass  Германия немісше «whose frolicsome black fables portray the forgotten face of history.»
2000 Gao Xingjian  Қытай,[11][12]

1998:  Франция[12]

Chinese «for an oeuvre of universal validity, bitter insights and linguistic ingenuity, which has opened new paths for the Chinese novel and drama.»
2001 Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul  Тринидад және Тобаго,[13]  Ұлыбритания Ағылшын тілі «for having united perceptive narrative and incorruptible scrutiny in works that compel us to see the presence of suppressed histories.»
2002 Imre Kertész  Мажарстан Мажар «for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history.»
2003 J. M. Coetzee  Оңт. Африка, 2006:  Аустралия[14] Ағылшын тілі «who in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider.»
2004 Elfriede Jelinek  Австрия немісше «for her musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that with extraordinary linguistic zeal reveal the absurdity of society's clichés and their subjugating power.»
2005 Harold Pinter  Ұлыбритания Ағылшын тілі «who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces entry into oppression's closed rooms.»
2006 Orhan Pamuk  Түркия Түрік «who in the quest for the melancholic soul of his native city has discovered new symbols for the clash and interlacing of cultures.»
2007 Doris Lessing  Ұлыбритания Ағылшын тілі «that epicist of the female experience, who with scepticism, fire and visionary power has subjected a divided civilisation to scrutiny»
2008 J. M. G. Le Clézio  Франция Французша «author of new departures, poetic adventure and sensual ecstasy, explorer of a humanity beyond and below the reigning civilization»
2009 Herta Müller  Германия немісше «who, with the concentration of poetry and the frankness of prose, depicts the landscape of the dispossessed»
2010 Mario Vargas Llosa  Перу Испанша «for his cartography of structures of power and his trenchant images of the individual's resistance, revolt, and defeat»
2013 Alice Munro  Канада Ағылшын тілі «»

Түсініктемелер[өңдеу]

  1. a b Hesse, Herman Hermann Hesse: The Nobel Prize in Literature 1946. The Nobel Foundation (1946). — «In 1923, I resigned German and acquired Swiss citizenship.»  Тексерілді, 13 тамыз 2007.
  2. a b T.S. Eliot: The Nobel Prize in Literature 1948: Biography. The Nobel Foundation (1948). — «Thomas Stearns Eliot (1888-1965) was born in St. Louis, Missouri ... In 1927, Eliot became a British citizen and about the same time entered the Anglican Church.»  Тексерілді, 13 тамыз 2007.
  3. a b Nelly Sachs Biography. Art Directory GmbH. — «The German writer and poet Nelly Sachs, whose original name was Leonie Sachs, was born to Jewish parents on December 10, 1891 in Berlin-Schöneberg. ... In 1950 Nelly's mother died and she wrote poems dealing with the loss. Two years later Sachs received Swedish citizenship.»  Тексерілді, 13 тамыз 2007.
  4. Bandler, Michael J. Author Saul Bellow Dead At 89: Nobel laureate was one of America's great 20th century novelists. U.S. Department of State (7 сәуір 2005). — «Canadian by birth -- the son of a Russian émigré businessman and a social worker -- and Chicagoan by residence and perspective and affection for most of his life, Bellow, a naturalized U.S. citizen, was part of the generation of writers...»  Тексерілді, 13 тамыз 2007.
  5. Slater Elinor SAUL BELLOW: Winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature // Great Jewish Men — Jonathan David Company. — P. 42. — ISBN 0824603818.
  6. a b Isaac Bashevis Singer: Biographical Sketch. Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center at the University of Texas at Austin. — «Isaac Bashevis Singer was born Icek-Hersz Zynger on July 14, 1904, in Leoncin, Poland. ... In 1943, Singer became a United States citizen.»  Тексерілді, 13 тамыз 2007.
  7. Czeslaw Milosz. Encyclopædia Britannica. — «Milosz became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1970.»  Тексерілді, 14 тамыз 2007.
  8. Czeslaw Milosz. University of California. — «He was made an honorary citizen of Lithuania in 1992...»  Тексерілді, 14 тамыз 2007.
  9. a b Elias Canetti: The Nobel Prize in Literature 1981: Curriculum Vitae. The Nobel Foundation. — «1905 Born on 25 July in Ruse, Bulgaria. 1952 Receives British citizenship.»  Тексерілді, 14 тамыз 2007.
  10. a b Joseph Brodsky 1940–1996. eNotes. — «Often called the best Russian poet of his generation, Brodsky was born and raised in the former Soviet Union and became an American citizen in 1977.»  Тексерілді, 13 тамыз 2007.
  11. Gao Xingjian: The Nobel Prize in Literature 2000: Biography. The Nobel Foundation (2000). Тексерілді, 13 тамыз 2007.
  12. a b Gao Xingjian 1940-. eNotes. — «Gao Xingjian (pronounced gow shing-jen) was born on Қаңтардың 4, 1940, in Ganzhou, China. ... His next plays received negative reactions from the Chinese government, causing Gao to emigrate to France in 1987 during a trip to Germany on an artistic fellowship. ... He became a naturalized Французша citizen in 1998...»  Тексерілді, 13 тамыз 2007.
  13. V. S. Naipaul 1932-. eNotes. — «Naipaul was born in Port of Spain, Trinidad, in 1932, the second generation descendant of an East Indian grandfather who came to the West Indies in the early 1900s as an indentured laborer in the British colonial administration.»  Тексерілді, 13 тамыз 2007.
  14. JM Coetzee becomes an Australian citizen. Mail & Guardian online (6 наурыз 2006). Тексерілді, 14 тамыз 2007.